By it was already considered a simple devise used to distinguish abnormal from normal labour as it was used to monitor 15, delivers within 18 months Studd, It is a pre-printed paper with a visual graphical representation of observations made on a woman and fetus during the course of labour. The observations are comprised of the progress of labor, maternal condition and fetal condition. These observations are displayed on the partograph for easy and quick review of ongoing labor and timing of management decisions.
The latent phase begins with mild, irregular uterine contractions that soften and shorten the cervix. The contractions become progressively more rhythmic and stronger. This is followed by the active phase of labor, which usually begins at about cm of cervical dilation and is characterized by rapid cervical dilation and descent of the presenting fetal part.
The first stage of labor ends with complete cervical dilation at 10 cm. According to Friedman, the active phase is further divided into an acceleration phase, a phase of maximum slope, and a deceleration phase.
Precipitated and prolonged labor are potential risks of post partum hemorrhage, (Nelson, ). Interpretation of cervical dilatation is aided by alert and action lines on the graph. Alert line is a graphic line drawn cm. its role is to separate normal from abnormal labour. The labor and delivery nurse reports Essay. A. Pages:3 Words This is just a sample. To get a unique essay para 3, is transferred to the postpartum unit 2 hours after a prolonged hour labor and forceps delivery of a male infant weighing 9 lb, 2 oz. We will write a custom essay sample on The labor and delivery nurse reports. Prolonged labor and obstructed labor are major causes of maternal and newborn morbidity and mortality in india. One of the tools used to monitor labor and prevent prolonged and obstructed labor is the partograph, a single sheet printed paper on which labor observations are recorded.
Characteristics of the average cervical dilatation curve is known as the Friedman labor curve, and a series of definitions of labor protraction and arrest were subsequently established.
The AmericanCollege of Obstetricians and Gynecologists ACOG has suggested that a prolonged second stage of labor should be considered when the second stage of labor exceeds 3 hours if regional anesthesia is administered or 2 hours in the absence of regional anesthesia for nulliparas.
In multiparous women, such a diagnosis can be made if the second stage of labor exceeds 2 hours with regional anesthesia Prolonged labor essay 1 hour without it.
Studies performed to examine perinatal outcomes associated with a prolonged second stage of labor revealed increased risks of operative deliveries and maternal morbidities but no differences in neonatal outcomes.
The third stage of labor is defined by the time period between the delivery of the fetus and the delivery of the placenta and fetal membranes. During this period, uterine contraction decreases basal blood flow, which results in thickening and reduction in the surface area of the myometrium underlying the placenta with subsequent detachment of the placenta.
Expectant management of the third stage of labor involves spontaneous delivery of the placenta. Although labor and delivery occurs in a continuous fashion, the cardinal movements are described as 7 discrete sequences, as discussed below.
On the pelvic examination, the presenting part is at 0 station, or at the level of the maternal ischial spines. The downward passage of the presenting part through the pelvis.
This occurs intermittently with contractions. The rate is greatest during the second stage of labor. Flexion As the fetal vertex descents, it encounters resistance from the bony pelvis or the soft tissues of the pelvic floor, resulting in passive flexion of the fetal occiput.
The chin is brought into contact with the fetal thorax, and the presenting diameter changes from occipitofrontal Internal rotation brings the AP diameter of the head in line with the AP diameter of the pelvic outlet. Extension With further descent and full flexion of the head, the base of the occiput comes in contact with the inferior margin of the pubic symphysis.
Upward resistance from the pelvic floor and the downward forces from the uterine contractions cause the occiput to extend and rotate around the symphysis. The anterior shoulder is then rotated under the symphysis, followed by the posterior shoulder and the rest of the fetus.
Clinical History and Physical Examination. Braxton-Hicks contractions, which are often irregular and do not increase in frequency with increasing intensity, must be differentiated from true contractions.
Braxton-Hicks contractions often resolve with ambulation or a change in activity. However, contractions that lead to labor tend to last longer and are more intense, leading to cervical change. True labor is defined as uterine contractions leading to cervical changes.
If contractions occur without cervical changes, it is not labor. Other causes for the cramping should be diagnosed. Gestational age is not a part of the definition of labor.
In addition, Braxton-Hicks contractions occur occasionally, usually no more than per hour, and they often occur just a few times per day. Labor contractions are persistent, they may start as infrequently as every minutes, but they usually accelerate over time, increasing to contractions that occur every minutes.
The mother may feel that her baby has become light. Her breathing may be relieved because tension on the diaphragm is reduced, whereas urination may become more frequent due to the added pressure on the urinary bladder.
The frequency, duration, and intensity of uterine contractions should be assessed, particularly the abdominal and pelvic examinations in patients who present in possible labor. Abdominal examination begins with the Leopold maneuvers described below2:Labor is a physiologic process during which the products of conception (ie, the fetus, membranes, umbilical cord, and placenta) are expelled outside of the uterus - Labor and Delivery Essay introduction.
Labor is achieved with changes in the biochemical connective tissue and with gradual effacement and dilatation of the uterine cervix as a.
work, labor, travail, toil, drudgery, grind mean activity involving effort or exertion. work may imply activity of body, of mind, of a machine, or of a natural force..
too tired to do any work; labor applies to physical or intellectual work involving great and often strenuous exertion.. farmers demanding fair compensation for their labor; travail is bookish for labor involving pain or suffering.
Home / Labor and Birth / Prolonged Labor: Failure to Progress Prolonged Labor: Causes and Solutions Prolonged labor, also known as failure to progress, occurs when labor lasts for approximately 20 hours or more if you are a first-time mother, and 14 hours or more if you have previously given birth.
Child labor and poverty are inevitably bound together and if you continue to use the labor of children as the treatment for the social disease of poverty, you will have both poverty and child labor to the end of time.
"Small hands can handle a pen better. The labor and delivery nurse reports Essay. A. Pages:3 Words This is just a sample.
To get a unique essay para 3, is transferred to the postpartum unit 2 hours after a prolonged hour labor and forceps delivery of a male infant weighing 9 lb, 2 oz. We will write a custom essay sample on The labor and delivery nurse reports. Seeks to understand the mechanism of a household's decision on child labor and educational investment by proposing a theoretical framework, examining the empirical evidence, and providing policy evaluation and recommendations.