An analysis of the ways in which resistance to change becomes apparent within organizations

Employee resistance to organizational change Posted by Torben Rick September 14, August 8, Overcome employee resistance to organizational change Resistance to change can doom organizational transformation In the s, H. The oldest and strongest emotion of mankind is fear, and the oldest and strongest kind of fear is fear of the unknown This quote, said over 90 years ago, still holds true today when it comes to the workplace. Understanding the most common reasons people object to change gives you the opportunity to plan your change strategy to address these factors. Employee resistance to organizational change — Why do employees resist change?

An analysis of the ways in which resistance to change becomes apparent within organizations

Critical Theory as Metaphilosophy: Philosophy, Ideology and Truth The best way to show how Critical Theory offers a distinctive philosophical approach is to locate it historically in German Idealism and its aftermath.

For Marx and his generation, Hegel was the last in the grand tradition of philosophical thought able to give us secure knowledge of humanity and history on its own. Once reason was thoroughly socialized and made historical, historicist skepticism emerged at the same time, attempting to relativize philosophical claims about norms and reason to historically and culturally variable forms of life.

Critical Theory developed a nonskeptical version of this conception, linking philosophy closely to the human and social sciences.

In so doing, it can link empirical and interpretive social science to normative claims of truth, morality and justice, traditionally the purview of philosophy.

While it defends the emphasis on normativity and universalist ambitions found in the philosophical tradition, it does so within the context of particular sorts of empirical social research, with which it has to cooperate if it is to understand such normative claims within the current historical context.

After presenting the two main versions of this conception of philosophy, I turn to an illuminating example of how this cooperative relation between philosophy and the social sciences works from the point of view of the main figures in Critical Theory who sought to develop it: Even if Critical Theorists are united in a common philosophical project, this example shows the large differences between the first and second generation concerning the normative justification of social criticism.

Why, What, How?

In the modern era, philosophy defines its distinctive role in relation to the sciences. As Rorty and others have put it, transcendental philosophy has two distinct roles: In light of this ability to judge the results of the sciences, philosophy can also organize knowledge, assigning to each of them their proper sphere and scope.

The Kantian solution denies the need for direct cooperation with the sciences on issues related to normativity, since these were determined independently through transcendental analysis of the universal and necessary conditions for reason in its theoretical and practical employment.

Echoes of the subsequent post-Hegelian criticisms of Kantian transcendental philosophy are found in the early work of Horkheimer and Marcuse. As Horkheimer understood the task of Critical Theory, philosophical problems are preserved by taking a role in defining problems for research, and philosophical reflection retains a privileged role in organizing the results of empirical research into a unified whole.

This understanding of the relation of philosophy and the sciences remains broadly Kantian. Even while rejecting the role of philosophy as transcendental judge, he still endorses its normative role, to the extent that it still has the capacity to organize the claims of empirical forms of knowledge and to assign each a role in the normative enterprise of reflection on historically and socially contextualized reason.

This unstable mixture of naturalism with a normative philosophical orientation informed much of the critical social science of the Frankfurt School in the s. According to this conception of materialism, Critical Theory could operate with a theoretical division of labor in which philosophy's normative stance could criticize the embodiments of reason and morality according to their internal criteria.

However, Horkheimer and Marcuse saw the skeptical and relativist stance of the emerging sociology of knowledge, particularly that of Karl Mannheim, as precisely opposed to that of Critical Theory. Horkheimer formulates this skeptical fallacy that informed much of the sociologically informed relativism of his time in this way: It is not clear why the conditioned character of thought should affect the truth of a judgment—why shouldn't insight be just as conditioned as error?

The core claim here is that fallibilism is different from relativism, suggesting that it is possible to distinguish between truth and the context of justification of claims to truth. Faced with a sociological naturalism that relativized claims to truth and justice are necessary for social criticism, the challenge could be answered by detranscendentalizing truth without losing its normativity Horkheimer6; McCarthy, in McCarthy and Hoy Once the skeptic has to take up the practical stance, alternatives to such paper doubt become inevitable.

Indeed, the critic must identify just whose practical stance best reveals these possibilities as agents for social transformation of current circumstances. As I point out in the next section, the Frankfurt School most often applied ideology critique to liberal individualism, pointing out its contextual limitations that lead to reductionist and pernicious interpretations of democratic ideals.

An analysis of the ways in which resistance to change becomes apparent within organizations

First, philosophy is given the task of organizing social research and providing its practical aims even in the absence of the justification of its superior capacities. A more modest and thoroughly empirical approach would be more appropriate and defensible.

Second, the source of this confidence seems to be practical, that critics must immanently discover those transformative agents whose struggles take up these normative contents of philosophy and attempt to realize them.

But once this practical possibility no longer seems feasible, then this approach would either be purely philosophical or it would turn against the potentialities of the present.

Indeed, during the rise of fascism in the Second World War and the commodified culture afterwards, the Frankfurt School became skeptical of the possibility of agency, as the subjective conditions for social transformation were on their view undermined.

It is clear that in Dialectic of Enlightenment Horkheimer and Adorno abandoned this interdisciplinary materialist approach with its emphasis on cooperation with the social sciencesxi.

Since Adorno and Horkheimer planned to offer a positive way out of the dialectic of Enlightenment at the time they wrote these words, this reversal is by no means inevitable.

The Next Chapter in Story Development

For the positive task of avoiding the reversal of Enlightenment, reconstructing the rational content of modernity is not enough, since the issue is not to affirm its universalism, but its self-critical and emancipatory capacity.

If the issue is the self-correcting capacity of the Enlightenment, two questions emerge: Where do we locate the exercise of this capacity? Against this skeptical predicament of the first generation of Critical Theory, it could be said without exaggeration that Habermas's basic philosophical endeavor from Knowledge and Human Interests to The Theory of Communicative Action has been to develop a more modest, fallibilist, empirical account of the philosophical claim to universality and rationality.

This more modest approach rids Critical Theory of its vestiges of transcendental philosophy, pushing it in a naturalistic direction. Such naturalism identifies more specific forms of social scientific knowledge that help in developing an analysis of the general conditions of rationality manifested in various human capacities and powers.

Unlike Kant's transcendental analysis of the conditions of rationality, such sciences yield knowledge that is not necessary but hypothetical, not a priori but empirical, not certain but fallible. They are nevertheless directed to universal structures and conditions and raise universal, but defeasible claims to an account of practical reason.

In this way, Habermas undermines both of the traditional Kantian roles for philosophy and brings them into a fully cooperative relation to the social sciences.

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This can be seen in the clear differences between his account of the critique of ideology, which is at once contextualist and antirelativist but also underwrites its own normativity in ways that Horkheimer and Marcuse's more nearly transcendental account could not, given the inevitable tension between philosophical ideals and the historical conditions of current societies and their practices.Nonprofit Organizations, Government and the Welfare State Published in Political Science Quarterly, Volume , Number 4, , pp.

Since the early decades of the American Republic, nonprofit organizations have played a critical role in helping people in need by providing education, training, residences, counseling, and in‑kind. Sep 08,  · Behavioral momentum theory provides a quantitative account of how reinforcers experienced within a discriminative stimulus context govern the persistence of behavior that occurs in that context.

The theory suggests that all reinforcers obtained in the presence of a discriminative stimulus increase resistance to change, regardless of. Related to Kotter's ideas, and particularly helpful in understanding the pressures of change on people, and people's reactions to change, see a detailed interpretation of the personal change process in John Fisher's model of the process of personal change.

The Challenge of Organizational Learning Disseminating insights and know-how across any organization is critical to improving performance, but nonprofits struggle to implement organizational learning and make it a priority. The 8-Step Process for Leading Change To successfully react to windows of opportunity, regardless of the focus — innovation, growth, culture, cost structure, technology — a new methodology of change leadership is required.

According to French and Raven, power must be distinguished from influence in the following way: power is that state of affairs which holds in a given relationship, A-B, such that a given influence attempt by A over B makes A's desired change in B more likely.

The Challenge of Organizational Learning