Utilitarianism vs Duty Ethics Michael Rockler compares two ethics of statemanship for two American presidents. The historical evaluation of a presidency — whether or not is has been successful — is often based on the way in which the president approached moral dilemmas. This article looks at presidential decisions in the administrations of Abraham Lincoln and Harry S. It examines how each applied both utilitarianism which is closely related to democratic governance and Kantian duty ethics in making significant judgments.
Then philosophy migrated from every direction to Athens itself, at the center, the wealthiest commercial power and the most famous democracy of the time [ note ]. Socrates, although uninterested in wealth himself, nevertheless was a creature of the marketplace, where there were always people to meet and where he could, in effect, bargain over definitions rather than over prices.
Similarly, although Socrates avoided participation in democratic politics, it is hard to imagine his idiosyncratic individualism, and the uncompromising self-assertion of his defense speech, without either wealth or birth to justify his privileges, occurring in any other political context.
If a commercial democracy like Athens provided the social and intellectual context that fostered the development of philosophy, we might expect that philosophy would not occur in the kind of Greek city that was neither commercial nor democratic.
As it happens, the great rival of Athens, Sparta, was just such a city. Sparta had a peculiar, oligarchic constitution, with two kings and a small number of enfranchised citizens.
Most of the subjects of the Spartan state had little or no political power, and many of them were helots, who were essentially held as slaves and could be killed by a Spartan citizen at any time for any reason -- annual war was formally declared on the helots for just that purpose. The whole business of the Spartan citizenry was war.
Unlike Athens, Sparta had no nearby seaport. It was not engaged in or interested in commerce. It had no resident alien population like Athens -- there was no reason for foreigners of any sort to come to Sparta.
Spartan citizens were allowed to possess little money, and Spartan men were expected, officially, to eat all their meals at a common mess, where the food was legendarily bad -- all to toughen them up. Spartans had so little to say that the term "Laconic," from Laconia, the environs of Sparta, is still used to mean "of few words" -- as "Spartan" itself is still used to mean simple and ascetic.
While this gave Sparta the best army in Greece, regarded by all as next to invincible, and helped Sparta defeat Athens in the Peloponnesian Warwe do not find at Sparta any of the accoutrements otherwise normally associated with Classical Greek civilization: Socrates would have found few takers for his conversation at Sparta -- and it is hard to imagine the city tolerating his questions for anything like the thirty or more years that Athens did.
Next to nothing remains at the site of Sparta to attract tourists the nearby Mediaeval complex at Mistra is of much greater interestwhile Athens is one of the major tourist destinations of the world.
Indeed, we basically wouldn't even know about Sparta were it not for the historians e. Thucydides and philosophers e.
Plato and Aristotle at Athens who write about her. In the end, philosophy made the fortune of Athens, which essentially became the University Town of the Roman Empire only Alexandria came close as a center of learning ; but even Sparta's army eventually failed her, as Spartan hegemony was destroyed at the battle of Leuctra in by the brilliant Theban general Epaminondas,who killed a Spartan king, Cleombrotus, for the first time since King Leonidas was killed by the Persians at Thermopylae in A story about Thales throws a curious light on the polarization between commercial culture and its opposition.
It was said that Thales was not a practical person, sometimes didn't watch where he was walking, fell into a well according to Platowas laughed at, and in general was reproached for not taking money seriously like everyone else. Finally, he was sufficiently irked by the derision and criticisms that he decided to teach everyone a lesson.Jemel Roberson was fatally shot by police in Kanye West's hometown, Chicago.
Stuff Circuit is a video-led investigative journalism team producing long-form video projects.
The award-winning team - Paula Penfold, Toby Longbottom, Phil Johnson, and Eugene Bingham - has delved into stories of public interest, including a miscarriage of justice, institutional racism, and a child’s death in a secluded Christian community.
OK, let's say you're still writing that movie, which is Very Loosely Based on a True lausannecongress2018.com've chosen a period of history that involves a lot of exciting fight scenes and explosions so your audience won't fall asleep and now you need some main characters.
In an ethical decision-making process, moral imagination helps individuals make ethically responsible decisions. Good ethics can also be good business. If the basis for finding an invasion of privacy is often the employee's legitimate and reasonable expectation of privacy, then a situation where there is no real expectation of privacy. McCarthyism is the practice in the United States of making accusations of subversion or treason without proper regard for evidence. The term refers to U.S. senator Joseph McCarthy (R-Wisconsin) and has its origins in the period in the United States known as the Second Red Scare, lasting from the late s through the s. It was characterized by heightened political repression as well as a. This is an additional reason for not mixing religion with leadership and ethical decision-making: too many people simply do not accept the basic premise that a leader can delegate responsibility in such a very strange and unaccountable way. invasion of privacy or anything causing privacy to be compromised; 'For the greater good' ethical.
Ethical Decision Making; The Common Good ; differences that have increased during the last few decades as the voices of more and more previously silenced groups, such as women and minorities, have been heard. Maintaining a common good often requires that particular individuals or particular groups bear costs that are much greater than.
AFAM Intro to African American Studies This course provides an overview of African American history and culture. Topics include major events, persons, and issues spanning the period from the African heritage to contemporary times.
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